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KdUINO is a moored instrument that measures the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), used to assess water transparency.
Studies have shown that coastal areas and lakes change rapidly over space and time, especially when close to human activities and in areas strongly affected by rivers, wind and waves. Monitoring water transparency provides an indicator of the environmental status of the water body by providing information about phytoplankton concentrations or levels of dissolved organic and inorganic compounds.

  • The KdUINO is low cost and easy to deploy, it supports increased in situ monitoring capacity and helps to plug the gap of temporal coverage left by satellite data. 
  • The simple structure of the KdUINO combined with the low-cost electronics makes this instrument suitable as a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) tool for citizen science-based water quality monitoring.  
  • The system is also suitable for research laboratories and environmental monitoring companies which need cost-effective Kd estimations with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Through MONOCLE the KduSTICK, KduPRO and the KduMOD have been developed.
  • KduSTICK is a  lightweight, easy to transport model. The light measurement sensors have been contained in a watertight transparent 1.5m tube, which is placed vertically in the water column and floats like a buoy.
  • KduPRO (prototype of the KduMOD) is a cost-effective and Do-It-Yourself moored instrument designed to obtain Kd measurements in the first meters of the water column. Each module contains a light sensor that allows measures in the spectral zone of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation), red, green and blue, and can store data independently.  The depth of each module can be modified according to the requirements of the project or the environment.
  • KduMOD is the modular version of the KdUINO. Each module contains light and temperature sensors that can store and transmit data independently. Thus, the KduMOD can be connected to other KduMODs to create an array of sensors options.  The depth of each module can be modified according to the requirements of the project or the environment.

Diagram showing the various elements of KdUINO

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