About the project
Sensors and services
Leiden University (hardware, software), DDQ (software), Bright LED solutions (hardware, external partner)
Olivier Burggraaff: firstname.lastname@example.org
Attach iSPEX 2 to any smartphone and gather data on spectropolarimetry by taking a picture of the water, the sky and a grey card for calibration. Since it is attached directly to your phone, iSPEX 2 does not need to enter the water and can be used from the shore or a boat. Data on the intensity and polarisation of light at different wavelengths (colours) is collected and analysed to provide information on the concentrations of certain materials in the water such as: chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic matter, and particulate matter.
Using a smartphone to gather environmental data allows everyone to become a scientist, massively expanding the amount of measurements that can be taken over time and area. As a low-cost sensor iSPEX 2 can easily be used to extend monitoring programmes into remote areas or at any time between official sampling runs.
Through the MONOCLE project the amount and quality of data collected via iSPEX2 has greatly improved through the development of an entirely new hardware design universal to almost every smartphone, and by data analysis now being based on the
Burggraaff et al 2019
iSPEX 2 data are automatically uploaded to a back-end server through the associated app. This server processes and catalogues the data and sends them to the MONOCLE back-end database, where they can be compared to other data.
Sensor measures the polarised intensity of light in two orthogonal directions (horizontal and vertical polarisation),
Hyperspectrally from 390-700 nm at approx. 9 nm resolution (exact figures depending on the smartphone used).
From this data the unpolarised spectrum and angle of linear polarisation can be retrieved which is used to infer properties of the water.
How it works:
Two slits, side by side, let through light from a single direction. This is modulated by a set of SPEX optics (λ/4 retarder, multi-order retarder, linear polarisers) that encode the polarisation information into the spectrum as light and dark bands. Finally, a grating disperses the light onto the smartphone camera, in the form of two rainbows (one per slit) with opposing light/dark bands. The smartphone camera registers these data and they are processed using
Spectral resolution approx. 9 nm (FWHM), depending on smartphone optics.
5 cm long, 10 cm tall, 7,5 cm wide
Add-on does not need power, smartphone has a battery
Method to transmit data:
Through smartphone (Wi-Fi, 3G/4G/5G)
By citizen scientists on a smartphone, from the shore or a boat
Standardized spectral and radiometric calibration of consumer cameras
. Burggraaff O. et al. Optics Express, Vol 27, Issue 14, 2019.
A universal smartphone add-on for portable spectroscopy and polarimetry: iSPEX 2
. Burggraaff O. et al. Proc. SPIE 11389, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications XII, 2020.
Open Data repositories
Publication date: Jun 2018 | Lead author: PML
Technical diagram of the iSPEX 2 sensor
Other sensors and services
Water Insight SPectrometer Station (WISPstation)
Measure water reflectance and key water quality parameters fully autonomously, emission-free, without any chemicals, at a high frequency and get results available near-real-time
Solar tracking radiometry platform (So-Rad)
Control and automate underway radiometric measurements for satellite validation from ships and buoys
Measure water transparency with a low-cost sensor that you can build! Advanced KdUINO sensors also detect optical and temperature stratification in the water column
Measure water transparency, colour and pH with the mini-Secchi disk: a handheld device that is easily deployed from shore or boat.
Hyperspectral Radiometer for Global & Diffuse Irradiance (HSP1)
A novel sensor to accurately measure the spectrum of sunlight near the water’s surface
FreshWater Watch (FWW)
A methodology for Citizen Scientists to use sensors to investigate the health of the world’s freshwater ecosystems
Using state-of-the art drone technology to monitor water quality. The MapEO Water service converts drone data into geo-referenced images providing information on the physical properties of water bodies.